Why Tashkent Agreement

April 19, 2022
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The agreement was negotiated by Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin, who had invited the parties to Tashkent. The parties agreed to withdraw all armed forces from positions held prior to 5 August 1965; the re-establishment of diplomatic relations; and discuss economic, refugee and other issues. The deal has been criticized in India for not containing a war treaty or renunciation of guerrilla aggression in Kashmir. The deal has been criticized in India for not containing a non-war pact or a renunciation of guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After the signing of the agreement, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri died mysteriously in Tashkent. [3] Shastri`s sudden death led to persistent conspiracy theories that he was poisoned. [7] The Indian government refused to publish a report on his death, arguing that it could affect foreign relations, disrupt the country and violate parliamentary privileges. [7] VI. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed to consider measures to restore economic and trade relations, communication and cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan and to take steps to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. The declaration at the time only put an end to hostilities between India and Pakistan, but left the Kashmir issue between the two sides still open, without either side being able to reach an agreement to date. The First Indo-Pakistani War, also known as the First Kashmir War (22 October 1947 – 5 January 1949), took place shortly after the independence of India and Pakistan. A ceasefire agreement led to the establishment of the Line of Control (LOC) as the de facto border between India and Pakistan in Kashmir.

The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on January 10, 1966, which settled the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September thanks to the intervention of external powers, which urged the two countries to a ceasefire, fearing that the conflict would intensify and involve other powers. [1] [2] In India, the people also criticized this agreement because the Pakistani president and the Indian prime minister did not sign a pact on guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After the day of this statement, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur died of a sudden heart attack. After him, no one accepted this statement and it was ignored by the next government. The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement signed between India and Pakistan to resolve the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War (August 5, 1965 – September 23, 1965). It was signed in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, which in turn was part of one of the republics that made up the USSR. The main objective was to re-establish economic and diplomatic relations in the respective countries and to stay away from each other`s internal and external affairs and work for the advancement of bilateral relations.

In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, talks were held at the ministerial level on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued throughout the spring and summer. The results were not achieved in these talks because there was disagreement on the Kashmir issue. The news of the Tashkent declaration shocked the People of Pakistan, who expected more concessions from India than they received. Things deteriorated further when Ayub Khan declined to comment and withdrew instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement. Protests and riots broke out in various parts of Pakistan. [3] To assuage the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to present the case to the people by addressing the nation on January 14, 1966. It was the difference with the Tashkent Declaration that eventually led to the removal of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Ayub`s government, who later founded his own party, the Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, the Tashkent declaration severely damaged his image and was one of the factors that led to his overthrow. [8] An agreement signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan to end the Second Indo-Pakistani War in Kashmir. The two countries agreed not only to withdraw their troops from each other`s territory and take back their prisoners of war, but also to begin normalizing diplomatic relations.

Unfortunately, the proposed start of India-Pakistan friendly relations was complicated by Shastri`s death just hours after the agreement was signed. The agreement has done little to mitigate the deep hostility between the two countries since their independence in 1947 and did not prevent the outbreak of new hostilities in 1970. VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to instruct their respective authorities to proceed with the repatriation of prisoners of war. Both the President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India showed respect and paid tribute to the efforts of the Soviet Union. They admired the efforts of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to organize such a pleasant and friendly meeting. The two leaders considered that this declaration would prove to be very fruitful for the future of the region. I. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides should make every effort to establish good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. They reaffirm their determination, in accordance with the Charter, not to use force and to settle their differences by peaceful means. They agreed that the continuation of tensions between the two sides does not correspond to the interests of peace in their region. In this regard, Jammu and Kashmir was discussed and each of the parties set out its respective positions.

Source: Vladimir Wozniuk, ed., Understanding Soviet Foreign Policy: readings and documents (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990), p. 174. . The meeting was held from 4 to 10 January 1966 in Tashkent, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union (now Uzbekistan) to create a more permanent establishment. [3] The Tashkent Declaration was criticized in India for omitting a non-war pact, and there was no mention of Pakistan denouncing its support for insurgent activities in Kashmir. In April 1965, Pakistan sent its special unit disguised as kashmiri natives, marking the beginning of Operation Gibraltar/ The purpose of the operation was to conquer Kashmir by fomenting an uprising against the Indian government by the local population. TASHKENT DECLARATION SIGNED BY THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND THE PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will make every effort to establish good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. .